Vegetable vocabulary

Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food.

Vegetable classification

Vegetables may be derived from almost any part of a plant:

vegetable classification

Classification of Vegetables
Fruits  Fruit vegetables are so called because botanically they fulfill the definition of fruits, but are used as vegetables by human beings. They are considered to be fruits because in the scientific sense of the term, fruits are those that carry the seeds of the plant. So, tomatoes, cucumber etc which are consumed as vegetables are actually fruits because they have seeds in them. 
Seeds  Podded vegetables, popularly known as legumes, are seeds that are found inside pods. In the olden days, legumes were known as the poor man's food. However, with the passing years, they have been included in the diet of most people. Podded vegetables are a great source of protein which helps in providing the energy and strength required to carry out daily activities. They also contain potassium, folic acid, complex carbohydrates, magnesium, iron, fiber and zinc. 
Flowers  Flower vegetables are so called because they have the shape of flowers. They are usually small in size and appear like many flower buds clustered together. 
Stems and Shoots  Stem vegetables are those that have stems which can be consumed. Some of the most popular stem vegetables include asparagus, celery and fennel. These vegetables can be used to make a variety of dishes. It is important to remember that stem vegetables should not be over-cooked, or else they may lose their crunchiness.  
Leaves  A leaf vegetable is one that is grown for its edible leaves. Most leaf vegetables are a good source of potassium and vitamins A and C. They are very versatile and can be prepared raw or cooked, in salads, as vegetable side dishes or added to recipes. 
Tubers  The tuber is the enlarged tip of an underground stem.The plant uses this tip to store food. Eg: Potato, Sweet Potato, Yams,... 
Roots  A root vegetable is one where the root is eaten, not the actual plant. Beets, carrots, turnips and parsnips are examples.  
Bulbs  Bulb vegetables are aromatic vegetables that are widely used to flavour casseroles, broths and soups. Some bulb vegetables, garlic for example, are also known for their medicinal virtues. 

Vegetables Vocabulary in English

Vegetables Vocabulary in English

Popular vegetables
Cauliflower  Roman cauliflower 
Broccoli  Cabbage 
Red cabbage  Potato 
Eggplant  Capsicum 
Chillies  Tomato 
Radish  Leek 
Corn  Ginger 
Okra  Peas 
Celery  Carrot 
Garlic  Onion 
Mushroom  Taro 
Yam  Turnip 
Red beet root  Sweet potato 
Beans  Apple gourd 
Cucumber  Salad gourd 
Bitter gourd  Bottle gourd 
Mint  Spinach 
Coriander  Pumpkin 
Squash   

List of the top 15 healthful vegetables

The most healthful vegetables
Spinach 

Spinach is a leafy green vegetable. It is also a great source of calcium, vitamins, iron, and antioxidants. One cup of raw spinach is mostly made up of water and contains only 7 calories.

It also provides the following nutrients: an adult's full daily requirements for vitamin K, high amounts of vitamin A, vitamin C, magnesium, folate, iron, calcium, antioxidants 

Kale  Kale may benefit people with high cholesterol. One small study reports that men with high cholesterol who drank 150 milliliters of kale juice per day for 12 weeks experienced:
  • a 10 percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein, or "bad," cholesterol
  • a 27 percent increase in high-density lipoprotein, or "good," cholesterol
Other research suggests that kale juice reduces blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood sugar levels. 
Broccoli 

Broccoli is an incredibly healthful vegetable that belongs to the same family as cabbage, kale, and cauliflower. These are all cruciferous vegetables.

Each cup of chopped and boiled broccoli contains: 55 calories, the full daily requirement for vitamin K, twice the daily recommended amount of vitamin C.

Eating plenty of cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, which may be because these vegetables contain sulforaphane. In animal research, sulforaphane reduced the size and number of breast cancer cells and blocked tumor growth. 

Peas 

Peas are sweet, starchy vegetables that provide 134 calories per cooked cup. They are also high in: fiber, at 9 grams per serving; protein, at 9 grams per serving; vitamins A, C, and K; certain B vitamins.

Green peas are a good source of plant-based protein, and eating them is an effective way for vegetarian and vegan people to boost their protein intake.

Peas and other legumes contain fiber, which supports good bacteria in the gut to ensure regular bowel movements and a healthy digestive tract. 

Sweet potatoes 

Sweet potatoes are root vegetables that provide 103 calories and 0.17 grams of fat per medium potato, when it is baked with its skin.

Each potato also contains: much more than an adult's daily requirement of vitamin A; 25 percent of their vitamin C and B-6 requirements; 12 percent of their potassium needs; beta-carotene, which may improve eye health and fight cancer.

Sweet potatoes may benefit people with diabetes. This is because they are low on the glycemic index scale and high in fiber, so they may help regulate blood sugar. 

Beets 

Beets and beetroot juice are great for improving heart health.

This vegetable is high in heart-healthy nitrates. A small-scale 2012 study reports that drinking 500 grams of beetroot juice significantly lowered blood pressure in healthy people.

These vegetables may also benefit people with diabetes. Beets contain an antioxidant called alpha-lipoic acid, which might be helpful for diabetes-related nerve problems, called diabetic neuropathy. 

Carrots 

Each cup of chopped carrots contains 52 calories and over four times an adult's daily recommended intake of vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene.

Vitamin A is vital for healthy eyesight, and getting enough of this nutrient may help prevent vision loss.

Certain nutrients in carrots may also have cancer-fighting properties. A 2011 study reports that carrot juice extract may kill or inhibit the growth of leukemia cells. 

Fermented vegetables 

Fermented, or pickled, vegetables provide all the nutrients of their unfermented counterparts, as well as a healthy dose of probiotics.

Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are present in the body and in some foods and supplements. Some researchers believe that they can improve gut health. 

Tomatoes 

Tomatoes contain lycopene, which is a powerful antioxidant that may play a role in cancer prevention. Research suggests that lycopene can help prevent prostate cancer. The beta-carotene in tomatoes also has anticancer effects.

Other potent antioxidants in tomatoes, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, may protect vision. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study reports that people who have high dietary intakes of these substances have a 25 percent reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration. 

Garlic 

Garlic has long been used in both cooking and medicine. Each garlic clove contains just 4 calories and is low in vitamins and minerals.

Garlic is a natural antibiotic. A compound in garlic, called diallyl sulfide, may be more effective than two popular antibiotics for fighting the Campylobacter bacterium, according to a lab-based study from 2012. 

Onions 

Each cup of chopped onionsprovides: 64 calories, vitamin C, vitamin B-6, manganese

Onions and other allium vegetables, including garlic, contain sulfur compounds. These may help protect against cancer. 

Alfalfa sprouts 

Each cup of alfalfa sprouts contains only 8 calories and a good amount of vitamin K.

These sprouts also boast several plant compounds that contribute to good health, including: saponins, flavonoids, phytoestrogens.

Traditionally, specialists use alfalfa sprouts to treat a range of health conditions, such as arthritis and kidney problems.

Animal studies have suggested that alfalfa sprouts may have antioxidant effects and may reduce inflammation.

Eating sprouted legumes may have extra health benefits. Studies suggest that sprouting, or germinating, seeds increase their protein and amino acid content.

Germination may also improve the digestibility of alfalfa and other seeds and increase dietary fiber content. 

Bell peppers 

Sweet bell peppers are commonly available in red, yellow, or orange varieties. Unripe, green peppers are also popular, but these taste less sweet than other colors.

A cup of chopped red bell peppers provides: 39 calories,  190 milligrams of vitamin C, 0.434 milligrams of vitamin B-6, folate, beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A.

Antioxidants present in bell peppers include capsanthin, quercetin, and lutein (in the green variety), which protects vision. 

Cauliflower 

One cup of chopped cauliflower contains: 27 calories, plenty of vitamin C, vitamin K, fiber.

Dietary fiber boosts a person's heart and gut health, preventing digestive issues and reducing obesity.

Cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables contain an antioxidant called indole-3-carbinol (I3C). I3C may reduce cancers of the breast and reproductive systems in both men and women.

Much like broccoli, cauliflower contains another potential anticancer compound: sulforaphane. 

Seaweed 

Seaweed, also known as sea vegetables, are versatile and nutritious plants that provide several health benefits.

Seaweed is one of the few plant-based sources of omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These fatty acids are essential for a person's health and are mostly present in meat and dairy sources.

Each type of seaweed has a slightly different nutritional profile, but it is typically rich in iodine, which is an essential nutrient for thyroid function. Eating a variety of sea vegetables provides people with several important antioxidants to reduce damage to the body's cells.

Many types of seaweed contain chlorophyll, which is a plant pigment that has anti-inflammatory.